Innovative trends in university education Part 2

Universities are of higher education in and the integration process of all higher educational institutions leading in the country and in the world universities that leads to appearance of University complexes. Translation of the higher education self-funded.

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The inclusion of universities in the upgrading of higher professional education taking into account requirements of international standards. Therefore, there is a transition of higher educational institutions in the mode of experimental work on approbation of new curricula, educational standards, new educational technologies and governance structures.

Some of the most famous in the world of “new school” of the twentieth century:

“Free school community” (based in Germany, Litam, P. Geheeb) is a boarding school, life organization, which was based on the principles of free development of the child and cooperation of the citizens of a small society. The training was based on compulsory labour and the choice of educational sessions. As a principle of organization used exchange rate system, and did not have stable curriculum. In the field of education, priority was given the civil responsibility based on the principle of internationalism. A fifth of all students were children from other countries.

School “free education” (Leipzig) considered inappropriate to teach a student any subject or craft. Existed curriculum and classes, but there were time constraints in the process of communication teacher and students. Orientation to the interest and development of students was decisive. The teachers saw the main task of teaching is to give a more complete picture of the diverse phenomena of the world. School “free education” followed the motto: “on the basis of the child”.

“School for life, through life” (O. Decroly, Belgium) – it training and education in close connection with nature, relying on the activities and freedom of a child, close contact with students’ families. “Centers of interest” of students was the main idea of the school. The training was organized in accordance with the peculiarities of development of children’s thinking. Child wanted to enter in the activity processes: monitoring, measurement, location, expression, thought and conduct of associations. An important component of the training was made by the immediate environment of the child: nature, school, family, society.

“School work” (D. Dewey, USA) sought to bring the training to life and experience of children, stimulating their natural development. That is to organize learning by doing. In the process of learning was considered the main motivation of the natural growth of the child: social (desire to communicate), constructive (desire to move in the game), research (craving for recognition and understanding), expressive (self-expression). For socializing children of different ages was given to extracurricular activities. From this direction increased:

  • “Laboratory school” (J. Dewey);
  • “Gaming school” (K. Pratt), based on the principle of the game and the method of dramatization in the teaching process;
  • “Children’s school” (M. Naumburg), relying on the motto “only by living we learn” and give preference to individual activities;
  • “Organic school” (M. Johnson), focused on training in groups.

For the above mentioned American schools were characterized by:

  • the desire to find new training methods;
  • attention to children;
  • the study of individual peculiarities of students;
  • the development of their activity, and also a trend towards practicality and utility of training and education.

Waldorf school (R. Steiner, Germany) solved the problem of comprehensive development of child’s personality through intensive spiritual activities. Therefore, the school focused on Autonomous from the social world the spiritual life of children. The organization of training was based on self-government was the Council, which included teachers, students, parents and friends of the school. The teacher taught all disciplines from the first to the last class. The process of training and education involved parents. In the assessment of learning outcomes was taken into account only the individual achievements of each student. The main activity of the school was searching for new forms of emotional-aesthetic education and upbringing. In moral education, special attention was paid to the methods and forms of awakening imagination and imagination as antidotes to the children’s bitterness.

The school is organized in accordance with the “method of projects” (W. Kilpatrick in the United States, by B. Russell in the UK), have provided students the right to free choice of work. The curriculum was seen as a set of interrelated experiments. The students themselves chose the activities through which to acquire new knowledge. They also determined the content of the school curriculum. The teacher only assisted them in the execution of the planned.

The schools working under the “Dalton plan” (first appeared in England, then to USA), was guided by the following principles: freedom of the child, his interaction with a group of children, the distribution of teaching time.

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Liberty student suggested the possibility to study in own pace the subjects he chose. The interaction in the group was carried out on the basis of communication between students of all ages. Time allocation is provided for receiving students assignments early in the month, and its implementation, in its sole discretion. The student signed a “contract” for the execution of a particular program. Subjects in school were classified into major (English, math, history, geography, science, high school – foreign languages) and a minor (music, art, manual labor, housekeeping, needlework, gymnastics, etc.). A significant part of study time (3 hours in the morning) was given to independent work. All students had individual schedule, choose laboratories and offices respectively, the subjects worked alone or in small groups. Individualization of education in school were subordinated to organizational forms, the selection of educational content and teaching methods.

“Open schools” (appeared in the early 1970-ies) claimed the individual nature of the training, which was limited to the actual abandonment of compulsory curricula and programs, the abolition of the class-lesson form of education, the elimination of a rigid schedule and a single school mode, to cancel the evaluation of the control system.

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