Independent work of students and its place in the learning process, as a factor in increasing the effectiveness of training

In higher education students come after the successful completion of the secondary general education and special education, which is different from the secondary schools specialized training, high volume and complexity of the material being studied, the method of study and especially the proportion of independent work of students in the general process of knowledge acquisition. The main task of higher education institutions is to obtain the students the necessary fundamental knowledge, professional skills and skills of their profile, ensuring their use in future practical activities. In addition, in the learning process it is ensured the formation of the creative personality of a specialist capable of self-development and self-education, commercial, investment and innovation activities.

The independent work of students is an integral part of the training work and aims to consolidate and deepen the knowledge and practical skills acquired, to seek and obtain new knowledge, normative and methodological information, to develop skills in research and investment activities. Independent work is directly connected with any kind of classroom activities and creates conditions for the birth of independent thought, cognitive and creative activity of the student. By independent work is understood the totality of all individual activities of students, both in the classroom and outside it, in contact with the teacher and in his absence. Independent work can be organized directly in the process of classroom instruction, including special self-study under the guidance of a teacher (practical and laboratory work, group exercises, seminars, etc.), as well as outside the classroom during the consultation and input development of scientific articles and essays, course and diploma papers, in the liquidation of arrears, when performing individual tasks, etc. The student can work independently in the educational library of the university and other electronic libraries, at home and the hostel, classrooms and classrooms, taking advantage of the opportunity to access the Internet and to the sites of teachers.

The independent work of students with educational standards of higher professional education is given enough time for the student for the entire period of study (up to 50%). Part of the classroom time devoted to classroom activities can also include independent work of students under the guidance of a teacher (practical classes, laboratory work, etc.). Given the amount of time devoted to independent work, there is a problem in the learning process about how to use it effectively. Independent work of the student is organized to teach him to work first with the material, and then from a scientific and methodical literature, to cultivate self-organization in the effective processing and assimilation of educational material and other information to instill skills in the future to continuously improve their skills improve and professional qualifications in process of practical activity.

Traditionally, the learning process is the following sequence: the teacher during lectures explains the study material of the relevant discipline, a student in the hours of independent work of students of the course of lectures and writing the synopsis, modify it if necessary. Learning material will be checked on the responses of students to seminars and workshops, (monitoring) and the input of the front of written surveys and testing, and subsequently in the process of final control and control of residual knowledge and skills, some time after completing the course. According to experts, taking into account the circumstances of an objective and subjective nature, there is as yet no effective system of active independent learning, but its individual elements are used. As a rule, not a single academic discipline has a full set of active teaching didactic material, built on the principle of search, problem-based learning. Therefore, the activation of training can be carried out only on the condition of the creative activity of the teacher himself, who must develop appropriate didactic material and methodological recommendations, and on their basis teach the students to work independently. Revitalization of search, problem-based learning – a system of questions and tasks, notes, and reference signals, which are put in front of students, including those developed by the teacher with extensive experience of domestic teachers-innovators, as well as foreign pedagogical experience.

Activation of the independent work of students in obtaining new knowledge, skills and self-assessment and self-control of the degree of mastering the educational material in modern conditions is enhanced by the introduction of new teaching technologies, including e-Learning or the use of its elements in mixed teaching that combines the traditional and e-learning. This approach provides students with information access to educational material that they can learn independently and effectively, eliminate bias and bias in the evaluation of results, and also reduces the possibility of their falsification.

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